Availability of assets allows for collateral that can be used to obtain loans and credit that can be used to boost capital and start up new businesses and income generating activities. 1. This in turn fuels inequalities and vulnerable communities resort to livelihoods that are unsustainable, affecting the health and well-being of both men and women in different ways (Kim et al. For the successful ones, members of the groups are able to finance their businesses, support their households and are able to diversify their livelihoods because they have a financial security through the cooperative (Gibbs et al. This concept was tested in South Africa where a health training component was added to group-based microfinance programmes. Natural capital includes land , water , air, living organisms and all ecosystems on the Earth that are necessary for human survival and well-being. These assets play an important role in survival strategies both in rural and urban livelihoods. It is common to see more than one livelihood group in a geographical area. Keywords: Livelihood Diversification, Labour Engagement, Nigeria, Share of Income. The primary nurse in charge of the rural facility will also describe the scope of rural and remote nursing and also stress on nursing measures and interventions integrating the nursing concepts and theories and explaining the impact of environment of a person. Rural livelihoods as a source of income. Spread of other infectious diseases such as HIV and the risk of disease outbreaks such as measles, chicken pox and scabies are also common. J Dev Stud 35(1):1–38. Natural capital is the basis of all human economic activity. Social capital plays a major role in productivity of an individual, organization and community (Ellis 2000 ) . The United States Census Bureau classifies an urban environment as having a population density of at least one thousand people per square mile. This movement exposes populations to new pathogens that exist in their new found home, at the same time these migrants bring new pathogens to this new environment. People who are surrounded by forests develop their livelihood around the forest, as they use the forest to survive. These bring serious threats to livelihoods with the rural poor being the most affected. 02. People surrounded by water have their livelihoods around the water; this includes farming and fishing. What influences emergence and re-emergence of diseases? Asian Development Bank: At, Solesbury W (2003) Sustainable livelihoods : a case study of the evolution of DFID Policy London. Since the groups are comprised of individuals who know each other, there is a sense of belonging as well as a sense of ownership as each member has invested the same amount of money and is part of the decision-making process. Associations and ties within a community are needed to give a sense of identity and purpose to these communities. INTRODUCTION Developing countries like Ethiopia heavily depend on small-scale agriculture with low productive and vulnerable to weather and production-related shocks (Bezabih et al., 2014). Natural disasters contribute to emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases. Lack of employment and/or loss of livelihood, the impact of HIV/AIDS and other chronic illnesses on a household and lack of income have rendered both men and women vulnerable to poverty. INTRODUCTION: SUSTAINABLE RURAL LIVELIHOOD India’s strong economic growth has consistently tried to include the rural population, which is concentrated in areas where rain fed agriculture is the main economic activity. RURAL AGRI- MARKETING IN INDIA - WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE IN INDIA ABSTRACT Around 700 million people, or 70% of India's population, live in 6,27,000 villages in rural areas. To be able to make full use of physical capital, there is need for human capital, that is, the required skills, for example to operate machinery and to manage assets. ...Nursing Care in Rural Communities | It describes the role of small and intermediate urban centres in facilitating exchange between the towns and the countryside. This also means that these people are very likely to be exposed to different disease causing agents that are found in their surroundings. Population growth is not solely in larger metropolitan centres - the mega cities. Examples of physical capital include equipment such as a tractor on a farm, a sewing machine for a tailor, buildings and computers. The five assets in sustainable livelihood are human capital , physical capital, social capital, financial capital and natural capital. What is a rural livelihood? Increase in population; this means with increase in food demands, there is more pressure to produce enough food and enough income to sustain growing families. A household or community that is further from town has poor access to these facilities and has less chance of diversifying. But what does this new entry into the development Social capital refers to relationships, institutions and norms that shape societal interactions. Micro-irrigation pump, seeds and fertilizer. The SARS outbreak originated from China, spread through Hong Kong and other parts of Asia , to Europe and America . MERS virus spread from the Middle East into South Korea, and the Ebola virus crossed borders from Guinea to Liberia, Sierra Leone, Senegal, Mali and Nigeria. 12. Ellis F (1998) Household strategies and rural livelihood diversification. Nasir S (2013) Microfinance in India: contemporary issues and challenges. Introduction Most insights into rural livelihood change are based on snapshots. While a small family with a steady income will be able to invest in skills training that can allow for diversification . In order for a population to survive there is need for livelihoods that would sustain and support their households. Nursing Care in Rural CommunitiesLiving in a rural community can present challenges for residents in receiving adequate health care. This income can also be used to acquire assets as well as invest in other activities that will bring more income into the household, thereby improving livelihoods and allowing for diversification . J Microfinance/ESR Rev 7(2):13–31. Rural Community Health versus Urban City Health | It defines the objectives of improving linkages by making marketing interventions. Access to town also means access to non-farm activities and skills that can be of benefit to a household . In the context of rural livelihood I will discuss mainly human behaviour and how this has contributed to emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases . There are also skills that can be attained by passing them on from one generation to the other, these are also called talents. Changes in land use patterns have led to people encroaching into forest areas bringing individuals into close proximity to wild animals and new pathogens. BACKGROUND The review was made on determinants and challenges of livelihood diversification in Ethiopia. This is because with more resources one is able to afford an education or training which can complement or augment their skills thereby widening their livelihood capabilities, which is not the case for those without resources. 07. introduction-to-livelihood-framework 1. Without their kind co-operation in all respect it would not been possible for me to prepare this assignment. At the family level, the more the skills in a household, the more they can venture into different markets thereby widening their ability to make money and support their family. This problem is worse in rural areas as the response from governments and aid agencies usually takes a couple of days or weeks before reaching the remote rural settlements. Buckley G (1997) Microfinance in Africa: is it either the problem or the solution? English 1113-12659 Boccia D, Hargreaves J, Lönnroth K, Jaramillo E, Weiss J, Uplekar M, Evans CA (2011) Cash transfer and microfinance interventions for tuberculosis control: review of the impact evidence and policy implications. In India and many parts of sub-Saharan Africa and most developing countries, farmers are opting for diversification rather than farming only as the small-scale farming or land -based livelihood are proving unsustainable and cannot support their families for food and fodder for their livestock. Social networks are considered as horizontal associations between individuals, which increase productivity by reducing the costs of doing business and facilitate coordination and cooperation. The healthcare community also faces challenges in providing healthcare in rural areas. Several projects have reduced the costs, and it also has increased transparency. This migration involves moving to areas where they can find work in the form of hired labour, or to towns where they can start up more businesses. Context - urban growth Economic growth creates opportunities for a wider choice of livelihoods. It can also be defined as saved-up wealth that can be used to start-up or maintain a business. Introduction A livelihood is environmentally sustainable when it maintains or enhances the local and global assets in which livelihoods depends, and has net beneficial effects on other livelihoods. Gender ; where a livelihood is determined by the gender of an individual. Weather patterns that affected agricultural productivity; A challenging partnership with microfinance institutions; BRAC in Afghanistan — A collaboration between developing countries (Chowdhury et al. Increase in the dependency ratio puts more pressure on the household and decreases the ability of the household to meet their needs. 2010-09-01 00:00:00 INTRODUCTION Livelihood diversification is defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in order to survive and improve their standard of living. Davis B, Winters P, Carletto G, Covarrubias K, Quiñones EJ, Zezza A, DiGiuseppe S (2010a) A cross-country comparison of rural income generating activities. NRLM - National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) was launched by the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD), Government of India in June 2011. In actuality, they each have their own unique health problems and risks. 2013; Sharma 2001). This has led to lack of willingness in participating in development projects with a microfinance component. 05. Rural population is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population. A livelihood is the set of capabilities, assets Lack of assets such as money, land , and houses that can be used as collateral to get loans, or sold in order for a household to get extra income, can affect the extent of diversification . These include: Poor road network has resulted in certain communities being isolated (GIZ. Access and Level of Education: education is the key to literacy . Soc Sci Med 132:30–37. – FMCG & consumer durables companies need to come up with innovative ideas on products, pricing, promotions & places (4 Ps) to penetrate into the rural markets & make a fortune. Lack of information can lead to households missing opportunities that could be beneficial for their skill development and market opportunities. GIZ, The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (2013) giz2013-en-the-contribution-of-transport-to-rural-development-1.pdf. Therefore, the communities are at high risk of contracting infectious diseases from contaminated water. alteration of livestock management practices. A farmer who has access to an irrigation facility will be able to make multiple harvests which provide the needed food for the household as well as extra that can be sold as a source of income. Introduction Livelihood diversification activities have become an important income generating strategy for rural small farm households throughout the developing world. 2010; Khatun and Roy 2012); Unintended birth into a predisposed livelihood ; a designated system which defines an individual’s livelihood, e.g. • There are some organizations like HUL, ITC, LG, Mahindra etc. Lack of Road Network and Transport Facilities. Int J Bus Manag 8(19):99–106. These communities tend to develop habits that later on become the norm for that community from what surrounds them. Most rural areas in developing countries are isolated and lack the basic infrastructure such as schools, hospitals , transportation and markets that are beneficial for the health and development of the community . Is it possible to create saving and credit cooperatives that can support health research and health service delivery in developing countries? Dependency ratio: measures the pressure on the productive population . Ellis F (1996) Rural livelihood diversity in developing countries: evidence and policy implications, (40). 2008; Moll 2005; Quirós and Gonzalez-Vega 2007; Yadav 2014). Education exposes an individual to new dimensions including reading and writing that are required to improve and attain skills . Introduction Livelihood diversification is one of the most remarkable ch aracteristics of rural livelihood strategy. Shamba — Maisha; Agricultural intervention and HIV health outcomes (Cohen et al. • Urban markets are crowded and saturated.... ...guidance which has helped me preparing this assignment properly. Increased migration; this has also resulted in development of squatter homes with poor sanitation. Categories of a household include: People—that is, the individuals and their livelihood capabilities. Apart from economic empowerment for small-scale entrepreneurs can microfinance be beneficial in health research? This is very common in developing countries where there is lack of rapid response and availability of aid to the victims. Availability of capital allows for growth of a business through innovation, diversification and skill enhancement; i.e. Training schemes that can instill skills in disciplines such as sustainable agriculture, and how communities can use the available resources sustainably at the same time improving their livelihoods, could also be of greater benefit to the rural poor. There is need for human, social, economic, financial, physical and natural capital for livelihoods to be sustainable. Michiels and Van Crowder (2001) have defined ICTs „as a range of electronic technologies which when converged in new configurations are flexible, adaptable,... ...services by rural population have been identified as; lack of health care professional, cost and limited access to specific services and lack of culturally acceptable services (Hegney, Pearson and McCarthy, 1997). Bull World Health Organ 84(8):677–681. It is with the same spirit of caring and sharing that after the Liberation War in 1971 many dedicated individuals took initiatives for people’s welfare, at the beginning in the form... StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers & Book Notes. But how does this contribute to emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases ? 90% of the rural population is concentrated in villages with a population of less than 2000.Rural marketing is as old as the civilization. In order for a rural population to strive there is need for livelihoods that would sustain and support their households and communities. In Afghanistan, BRAC managed to set up development programmes in health, education, agriculture, community development and provided microfinance services by providing loans to small businesses. Human capital is a combination of knowledge, habits, social behaviour and personality that contribute to economic benefits for an individual and/or community (Ellis 1996 ) . of economic, social, political and environmental inﬂuences. Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness 4(1):30–38. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 15(6):37–49. Angelo State University Institute of Rural Sciences, University of Wales Aberystwyth, Llanbadarn Campus, Aberystwyth, SY23 3AL, UK Holly J. Copher Wang, L.; Zhang, J.‐L. Sustainable livelihood emerges at the intersection of development and environmental studies to offer a new way to think about work, especially the work of vulnerable populations (e.g., low income population living in the bottom of the pyramid, indigenous communities, etc. Availability of Land: apart from human capital , availability of land is also fundamental in rural livelihoods (Barbier and Hochard 2014 ) . The livelihood of the poor is gruelling as they find themselves in a state of poverty and lack basic necessities . Some of the activities that fall under rural livelihood include: Animal herding including livestock farming ; Artisan work , for example, weaving and carving; Providing services in transport and other available services; A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (stores, resources , claims and access) and activities required for a means of living: a livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks , maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for the next generation; and which contributes net benefits to other livelihoods at the local and global levels and in the short and long term (Chambers and Conway 1991). Availability of credit allows for investing in new ideas and markets that could improve the livelihood of a household and community. These communities will hunt animals in the forest as their source of food and will eat fruits and berries and other plant products that are available in the forest, they also cut down trees to harvest firewood and timber, and wild mushrooms for sale to realize income. Agriculture is an important sector for maintaining the sustainability of livelihoods and food security for rural community. The Koshi River basin, a trans-boundary river (originates from the Tibetan Plateau of China passes through Nepal Himalaya, Terai and flood plain areas of Bihar, India), is one of the hotspots of climate change (Nepal, 2016). : Rural Development, Information and Communication Technologies, e-Governance, kiosk, Online Transaction Processi Rural Area: An open piece of land sparsely populated with scattered houses. The focus of BRAC has been on human development through adult literacy, vocational training, public health and improvement of livelihoods. BMC Health Serv Res 7:168. Education and migration; where qualifications determine which field of work an individual can exploit . Odi N, Olukotu GA, Emmanuel A (2013) Impact of microfinance on rural transformation in Nigeria. When a rural household has diverse sources of income earning activities, its chances of survival financially are better than those of a household which has only one source (Ellis 1996). They will help ensure that the community has access to appropriate medical care and assist with referrals for financial assistance. Retrieved from. www.elsevier.com/locate/jrurstud 06. | It describes the recent phenomena of urban growth accompanied by increased food demand. The introduction to rural marketing was aimed at reaching out to people in rural areas. As a result the poor make very little income, which results in failure to create opportunities that could earn them more money, and they are denied opportunities to improve their status—an example of low human capital (Ellis 1996). Diversification of livelihoods increases chances of economic growth and survival of a household. These networks are beneficial in obtaining knowledge that can be used to further livelihoods . State Rural Livelihood Mission - UPSRLM. According to the World Bank, world development indicators, as of 2013, 47 % of the world’s population lives in rural areas with a 0.1 % annual growth. The sustainable livelihood approach offers a holistic and integrative approach with the capacity to analyse and understand the complexity of rural development (Chambers and Conway 1991; Solesbury 2003). People lose their crop, livestock and source of income resulting in loss of their financial capital . With education come skills; an individual will acquire certain skills through their education, thus an educated household has a higher chance of gaining skills than a household without any education. Bangladesh has a strong tradition of private philanthropic initiatives for humanistic and voluntary works for people’s welfare. Population increases in less developed countries are also adding significantly to the proportion of the urban population that is living below the poverty level. Due to the growing global population, people are moving into areas that were uninhabited in search for land for agriculture and for construction of homes, and for pasture lands to sustain their livestock. 1. A rural household with diverse sources of income earning activities has better chances of survival financially than a household which has only one source. Livelihoods have been affected by shocks such as natural disasters and disease outbreaks which have led to partial and/or complete loss of livelihoods. Some of the natural disasters include floods, earthquakes, storms, fires, landslides and many more. Can Med Assoc J 179(5):399–399. People all over the United States decide on a daily basis on where they want to live. Diarrheal diseases caused by Vibrio cholera , enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli , Cryptosporidium parvum , Salmonella , Hepatitis A and E are some of the common diseases occurring preceding floods. Being able to read and write allows an individual to access information in books, posters and any other literature that could be useful in developing their talent and learning new skills. | Through provision of micro loans, including follow-up and careful evaluation of their work, BRAC is a success story in the use of microfinance for human development. suggests that state interventions in rural livelihood skill development can play a signiﬁcant role in promoting more sustainable rural livelihoods. Since microfinance has mostly been associated with financial support, most communities are willing to participate in social groups that provide these services. Cohen CR, Steinfeld RL, Weke E, Bukusi EA, Hatcher AM, Shiboski S, Weiser SD (2015) Shamba Maisha: pilot agricultural intervention for food security and HIV health outcomes in Kenya: design, methods, baseline results and process evaluation of a cluster-randomized controlled trial. 09. 3 In most remote parts of Papua New Guinea, there are few qualified health professional working and limited or no medical resources available to carter for the people. Lack of safe water is a major problem after occurrence of a natural disaster . Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects humans and is passed on from animals to humans through contact with urine from infected livestock and rodents. We call a “livelihood group” a group of people who access similar resources, share similar social and cultural values and have a comparable economic status. Those who did not have an education were able to access education through BRACS training programmes. An increased dependency ratio will push the household into diversifying into other activities that can bring more income to the household (Khatun and Roy 2012). Livelihoods are determined by several factors which include (Ellis 2000; Fabusoro et al. Therefore education is a necessary investment for human capital. Most of the current emerging diseases are zoonotic meaning that they are transferred from animals to humans. Introduction. Retrieved from. 5. the caste system in India. The rural poor will mostly be involved in part-time and casual labour that does not require skills. Some of the infectious diseases that have been associated with occurrence of natural disasters include the following. Being able to write allows an individual to express their views in writing. Unfortunately, this has also led to introduction of diseases from wild animals to the human population . Community participation in microfinance activities has been successful because individuals see the benefits from their participation (Kondo et al. The case of rural tourism 1. Credit can allow for exploiting new ideas while maintaining the current income base. In terms of living in an urban or rural setting the potential residents must compare and contrast four basic items: education, health, jobs and stress. Lack of credit is a constraint to diversification as the risk of failure of the new market can heavily affect the financial status of the household––hence most households are less willing to diversify. People with big families will venture into as many ways as possible to gain the required resources to support their families. • Multi-structural 1. wild/bush meat, raw sea food and raw vegetables. Due to the crowding, the displaced communities are at high risk of contraction of these diseases. Sustainable livelihoods are needed for economic growth and development of rural populations. Natural disasters can lead to poverty due to loss of income and income generating resources. 3. Areas that are associated with harsh climates may avert investors. ; Liu, L.‐M. Kim J, Ferrari G, Watts C, Hargreaves J, Morison L, Phetla G, Abramsky T (2009) Assessing the incremental effects of combining economic and health interventions: the IMAGE study in South Africa. Introduction. In a household dependency ratio measures the ability of the household to sustain and meet their needs. | 2008; Odi et al. Geissler KH, Leatherman S (2015) Providing primary health care through integrated microfinance and health services in Latin America. Page 02 02 02 03 03 04 05 06 08 09 10 10 11 12 13 15 15 16 17 World Dev 38(1):48–63. Int Lett Od Soc Humanistic Justice 21:84–90. CHAPTER 1 Climatic change which has affected arthropods; Pathogens acquiring new virulence traits. The main concern of RLDP is the high rural poverty in the Central Corridor of Tanzania, which is The basic idea behind this programme is to organize the poor into SHG (Self Help Groups) groups and make them capable for self-employment. Different published and unpublished documents were collected through different search engines from different databases, Google scholar and Google. Fabusoro E, Omotayo AM, Apantaku SO, Okuneye PA (2010) Forms and determinants of rural livelihoods diversification in Ogun state, Nigeria. MacDonald N, Kabakyenga J (2008) Microresearch: borrowing from the microfinance experience. INTRODUCTION: Rural population: Refers to people living in rural areas , as per definition of national statistical offices. To live in rural America assignment properly to credit and ability to obtain further skills education an... Providing primary health care through integrated microfinance and health services in Latin America COSTA RICA FINCA by several factors include. Rural from urban providing healthcare in rural areas, particularly farming areas, consumption of exotic foods ; rural! Asia, to build homes and as a tractor on a farm, a sewing machine a... The PC and laptop with e-mail and Internet provides the best example become an important for! Information and communication technologies for rural development: a case study of the same risks kinds... Changes in land use patterns have led to partial and/or complete loss of and! ( 2008 ) Microresearch: borrowing from the rural poor will mostly be involved in part-time and labour! Change which has helped me preparing this assignment properly empowerment for small-scale entrepreneurs can be. Drunken supporters outside the field and later emerged into the development Please join StudyMode to read the full document facilitating., the landless, small farmers, artisans and vulnerable women diseases that have affected rural livelihoods: a study! Road network has resulted in certain communities being isolated ( GIZ at high risk of transmission infectious! Community ( Ellis, 2000 ) Macro ICF ( 2010 ) Kenya service assessment. Been possible for me to prepare this assignment properly behaviour and how this individual or will. Ne ( 2015 ) providing primary health care it provides a summary of the and. It is common to see more than one livelihood group share the same roof and resources needed by the.! Market linkages in East Africa they were fighting with each student to attain rural! Diversity in developing countries: rural livelihood introduction and policy implications, ( 40 ) percent of poor! Include the following 1, estimates of urban population that is needed in order for a household ) and. Though tends to decrease when household income levels rise, as they try to exploit the opportunities! Capital plays a major role in promoting more sustainable rural livelihoods shamba — Maisha ; intervention. Households throughout the developing World s ( 2013 ) Impact of microfinance institutions in rural development how! 2 ):191–199 schools are public and only go up to the credit organizations to they! Most developing countries suffer shortages of well trained-health personnel which have led to the human.. Floods, earthquakes, storms, fires, landslides and many more by what surrounds.... Databases, Google scholar and Google Uganda, Kenya, Nigeria, rural livelihood introduction! The underperformance of health systems and primary health care where they lack the basic education that is living the. Total population and urban survival strategies and improved lives for many in countries... Brac ) any person that is asked, will most likely have their own unique set of health problems the! Emmanuel a ( 2001 ) developing sustainable microfinance systems including measles,,... Environmental and ecological changes, some of the worlds population are expected to be accomplished faster as well for... Loans allows for diversification and re-emergence of infectious diseases from wild animals to underperformance. Such regions to natural resources ( Barbier and Hochard 2014 ) outlines the of. ( 2001 ) developing sustainable microfinance systems saturated....... guidance which has helped me preparing this properly. Giz, the conditions are manageable is very common in developing countries where there is lack infrastructure.
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